Protein

Proteins are made from building blocks called amino acids (20 in total).
Peptides
Animal and plant cells join amino acids together to form peptides. This process results in the formation of chains of amino acids of varying lengths, which eventually become proteins.
Two amino acids – dipeptide
Three amino acids -tripeptide
4-9 amino acids – oligopeptide (oligo = few)
10 or more amino acids – polypeptide (poly = many)
Proteins are formed when the chain of amino acids total 100 or more, OR when two or more polypeptide chains combine and repeatedly fold together to form specific three-dimensional shapes. The shape or structure of a protein will dictate it’s function within the body.
Essential amino acids
There are 20 amino acids in total, but only 9 of these are essential. The body cannot produce/synthesise these itself. We need to ingest these to be able to synthesise the remaining non-essential amino acids.
Names of the essential amino acids:
Phenylalanine
Metionine
Tryptophan
Threonine
Lysine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Valine
Histidine
Conditionally essential amino acids
These are the ones the body can synthesise as long as it gets enough of the 9 essential ones.
Glycine, alanine, tyrosine, serine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, aspartic acid, asparagine, arginine, proline.
Complete proteins
Animal sources:
Eggs, meat, poultry, fish, dairy
Non animal sources:
Soy foods, buckwheat, quinoa
Incomplete proteins
Plants contain protein, but these are of a lower biological value because they are deficient or «incomplete» in one or more of the essential amino acids.
Examples: cereals and grains (wheat, rye, barley, oats, rice), cereal products (bread, pasta etc), pulses (beans, lentils), nuts, vegetables.
Complementary proteins
Mixing incomplete proteins together to get complete proteins, combinations include:
Wheat with beans
Rice with peas
Wheat with peas
Rice with beans or pulses

Proteins are made from building blocks called amino acids (20 in total).

 

Peptides
Animal and plant cells join amino acids together to form peptides. This process results in the formation of chains of amino acids of varying lengths, which eventually become proteins.

Two amino acids – dipeptide

Three amino acids -tripeptide

4-9 amino acids – oligopeptide (oligo = few)

10 or more amino acids – polypeptide (poly = many)

 

Proteins are formed when the chain of amino acids total 100 or more, OR when two or more polypeptide chains combine and repeatedly fold together to form specific three-dimensional shapes. The shape or structure of a protein will dictate it’s function within the body.

 

Essential amino acids

There are 20 amino acids in total, but only 9 of these are essential. The body cannot produce/synthesise these itself. We need to ingest these to be able to synthesise the remaining non-essential amino acids.

Names of the essential amino acids:

  • Phenylalanine

  • Metionine

  • Tryptophan

  • Threonine

  • Lysine

  • Isoleucine

  • Leucine

  • Valine

  • Histidine

 

Conditionally essential amino acids

These are the ones the body can synthesise as long as it gets enough of the 9 essential ones.

Glycine, alanine, tyrosine, serine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, aspartic acid, asparagine, arginine, proline.

 

Complete proteins

Animal sources:

Eggs, meat, poultry, fish, dairy

Non animal sources:

Soy foods, buckwheat, quinoa

 

Incomplete proteins

Plants contain protein, but these are of a lower biological value because they are deficient or «incomplete» in one or more of the essential amino acids.
Examples: cereals and grains (wheat, rye, barley, oats, rice), cereal products (bread, pasta etc), pulses (beans, lentils), nuts, vegetables.

 

Complementary proteins

Mixing incomplete proteins together to get complete proteins, combinations include:

Wheat with beans

Rice with peas

Wheat with peas

Rice with beans or pulses

Proteins are made from building blocks called amino acids (20 in total).

Peptides
Animal and plant cells join amino acids together to form peptides. This process results in the formation of chains of amino acids of varying lengths, which eventually become proteins.

Two amino acids – dipeptide

Three amino acids -tripeptide

4-9 amino acids – oligopeptide (oligo = few)

10 or more amino acids – polypeptide (poly = many)

Proteins are formed when the chain of amino acids total 100 or more, OR when two or more polypeptide chains combine and repeatedly fold together to form specific three-dimensional shapes. The shape or structure of a protein will dictate it’s function within the body.

Essential amino acids

There are 20 amino acids in total, but only 9 of these are essential. The body cannot produce/synthesise these itself. We need to ingest these to be able to synthesise the remaining non-essential amino acids.

Names of the essential amino acids:

  • Phenylalanine
  • Metionine
  • Tryptophan
  • Threonine
  • Lysine
  • Isoleucine
  • Leucine
  • Valine
  • Histidine

Conditionally essential amino acids

These are the ones the body can synthesise as long as it gets enough of the 9 essential ones.

Glycine, alanine, tyrosine, serine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, aspartic acid, asparagine, arginine, proline.

Complete proteins

Animal sources:

Eggs, meat, poultry, fish, dairy

Non animal sources:

Soy foods, buckwheat, quinoa

Incomplete proteins

Plants contain protein, but these are of a lower biological value because they are deficient or «incomplete» in one or more of the essential amino acids.
Examples: cereals and grains (wheat, rye, barley, oats, rice), cereal products (bread, pasta etc), pulses (beans, lentils), nuts, vegetables.

Complementary proteins

Mixing incomplete proteins together to get complete proteins, combinations include:

Wheat with beans

Rice with peas

Wheat with peas

Rice with beans or pulses

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